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Europe and the European Union’s policy concerning parenthood and care for children under 3 years of age

Autorzy

Tymoteusz Zych; Anna Kubacka; Magdalena Olek; Janusz Roszkiewicz; Karolina Pawłowska; Dominika Halemba; Aleksandra Frelek; Konrad Dyda; Bartosz Zalewski; Bogna Białecka; Marta Gan; Dorota Żelazowska; Marta Kowalczyk; Adrian Zimny; Maciej Flis; Magdalena Konopka; Wojciech Biegański; Aleksandra Mirkowicz; Maja Florek; Michał Kowalewski; Piotr Mikusek; Anna Pintara

Słowa kluczowe:

European union, child care, international law, parenthood

Streszczenie

Support for parents in caring for children under 3 years of age is in most modern countries an im-portant element of family policy. However, solutions adopted differ in terms of both the level of ef-fectiveness and assessment by parents.

Comparative analysis shows that despite a thorough reform of other family policy instruments, childcare system functioning in Poland is still one of the least effective and least responsive to the needs declared by parents. At the same time, this key component of family policy is of great developmental importance, and in the long-term perspective it may to a significant extent determine the demographic and economic potential of the state.

The solutions adopted by modern countries in the field of care of children under 3 years of age pursue two models:

• In the etatist model, the state supports - with the use of public funds - only one form of childcare preferred by the authorities, most often institutional care provided in nursery. The possibility of creating childcare institutions is strictly regulated by the state. The etatist model is also connected with creation of obligatory paternal quotas as part of parental leave, which means that parents have limited discretion regarding parental leave.
• The subsidiary model is based on respect for autonomy of the family and leaving it to decide, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, which form of childcare is supported. Legislation leaves a significant margin of freedom to set up early childcare facilities and provides for a wide range of forms of care.

Solutions that implement important assumptions of the subsidy model are implemented in countries where the overall fertility rate is among the highest in Europe, including Finland and France. In a number of countries, its introduction coincided with the start of an upward trend in the overall fertility rate. The etatist model is implemented primarily in the countries of the former USSR and the former Eastern bloc, which in a significant degree is a remnant of the legislation and social policy of the socialist era. Its elements can be found in parts of Western Europe, including Germany. There are no examples among the European countries analysed of countries where unilateral increase in investment in nursery care coincided with an increase in the overall fertility rate.

The subsidiary model of material support for childcare is implemented in three basic formulas: a parental voucher, long parental leaves or tax reliefs. Relatively long parental leaves are granted to parents in the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Russia and Hungary. The voucher is available to parents in different variants, e.g. in Finland and France. Income tax relief for the youngest children is still a rarity - to varying degrees it is provided for in the legislation of the UK and some US states. In principle, these instruments are designed in parallel with family policy mechanisms, which are addressed to all families with minor children.

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Bibliografia

I Legal acts

A. National

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